How To Give A Title For An Essay About Fashion Some Fun with Antiquated Hat Terms – Part Two – Renaissance Europe Through 1799

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Some Fun with Antiquated Hat Terms – Part Two – Renaissance Europe Through 1799

Some vague and unusual words popped up while looking at the history of hats and caps. Having recently finished reading THE PROFESSOR AND THE MADMAN (by Simon Winchester, HarperCollins 1998) about the development of the Oxford English Dictionary, I thought it might be a pleasure to explore the definitions and etymologies of most of these ancient words. All but gone from modern use. [I’ll breakup this project into three or four parts, so stay tuned.]

To qualify for the following inclusion, the word must appear with a short red line in the Microsoft Word “spell checker” tool. So here it is:


[Fr. ferronnière, a frontlet; a coronet worn on the forehead: after Leonardo da Vinci’s portrait La Belle Ferronnière.]

(See excerpt from 1960.)

1840 THACKERAY IN Fraser’s Mag. June 681/2 Sisters .. with pink scarf .. and brass ferronières .. voted very charming. 1908 HC SMITH Jewelery xx. 172 This head ornament is known as a ferronière. 1960 H. HAYWARD Antique Coll. 117/1 Ferronière is a chain worn as an ornament enclosing the head with a jewel in the center.



[a. F. bonne-grace ‘th’ vppermost flap of the down-hanging taile of a French-hood (whence belike our Boon-grace)’ Cotgr.; f. bonne good, grace grace.]

1. A shade or veil previously worn on the front of a woman’s hat or cap to protect the skin from the sun. Sun shade. (See quote 1617; the latter may belong to 2.

1530 PALSGR. 907 Grace bone, le moufflet. 1533 Forgiveness & Fr. At Hazl. Dodsl. I. 203 The grace that she wears with her French robe when she goes out is always in the heat of the day. 1595 R. WILSON Pedlar’s Proph. Bij, Fillets and bungraes. 1604 The entry of King DEKKER. 311 This great grace is done in order to keep His face. 1617 MORYSON Itin. III. IV. I 170 French shades of veluet to protect them from the sun that our ancient ladies borrowed from France and call them Bonegraces now completely out of vse with us. 1636 DAVENANT Platon. Wks lovers. (1673) 411 Is she old enough to wear Bongrace?

Fig. 1609 Haywood, England. Three VI. The 137 forest dwellers who run the lake bow their heads in grace from the sun.

2. The hat has wide brim to fit the face shade. Dec. Or Obs.

1606 Dutch Sutton. 75 wide brimmed hat [marg. or Bond-grace = petasatus] On his head. 1638 Songs Costume (1849) 140 Straw hats will no longer be beautiful from the bright sun to hide your face. 1719 D’URFEY Tablets (1872) IV. 107 Her Bongrace of wended Straw. 1815 SCOTT Guy M. iii, classic hat called bon-grace.

3. ‘Junk-fenders; For overcoming obstacles from the side of the ship or bow. Words of Smyth Sailor-bk.


Obs. E.g. History

[a. OF. huque, heuque a kind of cape with a hood; in med.L. huca (13th c. in Du Cange), MDu. hûke, hôike, heuke, Du. huik, MLG. hoike, LG. hoike, heuke, heike, hokke, hök, E.Fris. heike, heik’, haike, hoike. Ulterior origin obscure. See also HAIK1.]

A type of hat or coat with a hood; Outerwear or coats worn by women and then by men. Later also applied to tight-fitting clothes worn by both sexes (Fairholt Costume).

1415 In the Nicholas Test. Vet Sat. I. 187, I will say all my Hopolands. [and] Hehe, do not be angry, be divided among the servants. 1418 EE Wills (1882) 37 Also the Hewk of Grene and Melly separated. 1423 JAS. I Kingis Q. xlix, An huke sche has vpon hir tissew quhite. c1440 [see HAIK n.1]. a1529 SKELTON E. Rummyng 56 Her appearance of Lyncole Grene. 1530 PALSGR. 231/1 Hewke Women’s clothing, surquayne, froc. Ibid 233/1 Huke. 1616 BULLOKAR, Huke, Dutch costume covering head, face and body. a1626 BACON New Atl. (1627) 24 A messenger in the rich Huke. a1657 Love Poem (1864) 210 Like a dam in the territory of Luyck, he wears his bra forever. 1694 Dunton’s Ladies Dict. (N.) A German virgin .. Wearing straight clothes or casual clothes, as some places call them. 1834 JR PLANCHÉ Brit. Clothing 181. 1852 CM YONGE Cameos (1877) II. xxxvi. 370 When not wearing a vest, she was wearing a tight-fitting dress.

B. Applied to Arabia. Hack: See HAIK2.

1630 J. TAYLOR (Water P.) Wks. (N.) The richer species [of women] Doe wears a jacket, a jacket or a striped item, and the top of it is collected and sown. One in the form of an English grid with a tassel on top. 1660 F. BROOKE tr. Le Blanc Trav. 269 ​​(Cai) them. [ladies] Go all like ‘being masked and covered by Huke hiding their faces.

Thus huke v. trans., to cover with or as with a huke; To veil, coat.

1613 H. King Half-pennyw. Wit (ed. 3) Ded. (N.) I will .. throw away the shame of any place pretending to have a good meaning on it in order to embrace and hide it from public shame.


[f. LOVE n.1 + LOCK n.1]

A special form worn by the guards in the days of Elizabeth and James I; Later curl or tress of the hair of a special character or charm.

1592 Lily Midas III. ii. 43 Do you want .. your bouquet of beautiful silk or shaggie falling on your shoulder? 1628 PRYNNE (title) The Vnlovelinesse of Love ~ lockes. 1840 MARRYAT Poor Jack i, Lovelocks as sailors call the curls they wear on their temples. 1894 A. GRIFFITHS Secrets Prison Ho. II. IV. ii. 63 Bandoline that she used to make love locks to decorate her forehead ~ head and temples.

Transfer 1886 MAXWELL GRAY Silence Dean Maitland I. i. 12 each. [cart-] The horse wears his coat in love locks.


[Fr. fontange, f. Fontanges the territorial title of a mistress of Louis XIV.]

High-waisted dress worn in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

1689 SHADWELL Bury F. 11, What do you lack, woman? Good mazarine fabrics, Fontanges, Girdles. 1711 ADDISON Spect. No. 98 1 These ancient Fontanges rose Ell above the head. 1883 FG STEPHENS Catal. Brit Edition. Mosquitoes. IV. 282 An ugly one-eyed old woman in the font.

Thom Jin

[a. F. béguin child’s cap. See BEGUINE, note.]

1. Children’s hats.

1530 PALSGR. 198/1 Byggen for attention chyldes, beguyne. 1532 Confut more. Tindale Wks. 577/2. 1639 MASSINGER Unnat. Battle IV. ii, Will you let me change my hat into double and large clouts? 1755 Connoisseur No. 80 (1774) III. 71 Clothing store Hats..biggens .. as if to establish Linkin Hospital. 1819 SCOTT Ivanhoe xxviii, My brain is confused .. Since the big one was tied to my head for the first time.


[Said to be from the name of the 1st Earl Cadogan (died 1726). See Littré, and N. & Q. 7th Ser. IV. 467, 492.]

How to tie hair at the back of the head.

c1780 B’NESS D’OBERKIRCH M. (1852) II. ix, Princess of Bourbon introduced at the court of Montbéliard ..[the fashion] Of the Cadogans so far worn by gentlemen.


[a. F. toupet (tup ) tuft of hair, esp. over the forehead, deriv. (in form dim.) of OF. toup, top, tup, tuft of hair, foliage, etc.; ad. *LG. topp- = OHG. zopf top, tuft, summit; cf. OFris. top tuft, top, ONorse toppr top, tuft, lock of hair: see TOP n.1]

1. = Tupi.

1729 The Art of Politics 10 Do we think modern words are eternal? Toupet, and Tompion, Cosins, and Colmar Hereafter will be called by some ordinary men A Wig, a Watch, a Pair of Stays, fans. 1818 SCOTT Rob Roy vi, These sorrows that every gentleman thinks he has an obligation to pray to an unfortunate girl. 1863 Cornh. Mach VII. 395 Wigs are dangerous only if there is honest permission. Toupet can easily escape detection.

B. Transfer = Topic b. Obs.

1728 FIELDING Love in Sev. Masques Epil., From you then you toupets him hoping for protection. 1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa Wks. 1883 VII. 495 Wear only a pair of waistbands or shorts .. with bitterness makes the face half-legged.

2. Priests of horses or other animals (obs.); Thick head of hair (in quote. Of Negro).

1797 Sporting Mag. X. 295 Tuft or Toupet, the part of the mane that lies between the two ears. 1834 SOUTHEY Doctor iii. (1862) 5 Some Congolese make secret foams in their woolen tables.

3. attrib., As toupet-coxcomb, -man, -wig; toupet-titmouse, Crested Titmouse.

1731 FIELDING Mod. Husb. I. ix, I meet nothing but a bundle of toupet coxcombs that smear their brains on their periwigs. 1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa (1811) VII. The V35 is not just for men, but for all men. a1784 PennANT Arct. Zol (1785) II. 423 Timothy. Toupet .. has hair on the long head that it occasionally grows to a pointed tip like a toupet. 1884 E. YATES Rec. & Experts. II. 238 A Carefully prepared toupet-wig.

Thus toupeted nonce-wd. (tu ptd, tu pe d) a., wearing a jacket.

1903 Smart Set IX. 53/2 We go to dinner with the Colonel.



[f. the name of the Austrian general, Andr. von Khevenhüller (1683-1744).]

A. Attributes applied to the high rooster, given to the wide-brimmed hat worn in the middle of the 18th century AD. (See Fairholt Costume in Eng. (1860) 299); So with hats. B. absol. Chickens of this form; Hats that roll in this fashion.

1746 English. Mach 309 A hooded sweatshirt snapped into what our Beaux learned to call Cock Kevenhuller. 1750 COVENTRY Pompey Litt. II. iv. (1785) 58/1 Jockey-boots, Khevenhullar-hats, and Coach-whips. 1753 Proc. The Commission of Consciousness (Fairholt I. 377) is not forgotten? Noble Kevenhuller depressed? 1762 London. Chron. XI. Chapter of Hats (Planchè) Hats are now worn an average of six inches and three-fifths wide at the edges and ruffled between Quaker and Kevenhuller.


Now for history.


[Fr.; fem. of dormeur sleeper, applied to articles convenient for sleeping, f. dormir to sleep.]

1. A nightgown or hat. Obs.

1734 MRS. DELANY Life & Corr. (1861) I. 479, I have sent you .. as a dormeuse sponsor. 1753 Allow. Mrs. Dewes in Life & Corr. 260 She has not been able to go to bed yet.

2. A wheelchair adapted for sleeping.

1808 M. WILMOT Jrnl. 16 August (1934) III. 363 We .. set out in Dormeuse, 4 horses and 2 heads. 1825 VISC. S. DE REDCLIFFE in SL Poole Life (1888) I. 357 Two black and green trains, the Dormeuse and the Britchka, you see .. in Windsor. 1841 LYTTON Nt. & Morning. (1851) 216 Dormitory and four people drive up to the inn door to exchange horses.

3. Type of sofa or settee.

1865 OUIDA Strathmore I. vi. 94 (St.) He slept in a ditch before the fire.

Fred Belinsky

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