Jet Streams Generally Move Across The U.S In What Fashion The Difference between Types I and II Supernovae

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The Difference between Types I and II Supernovae

Type I and Type II supernovae have some common characteristics but others are very different.

Type I supernovae are the explosions of white dwarf stars composed primarily of oxygen and carbon. The white dwarf contains the mass of a nearby neutron star collapsing to reach 1.4 times the mass of our sun. The resulting density and temperature conditions cause the carbon to explode explosively. Within a second, a nuclear fireball is created and the entire star is thrown into the kingdom. No residue remains. The entire mass of the star is thrown into space at a speed of 6000 to 8000 kilometers per second. This rocket consists primarily of the heavier elements that result from the nuclear fusion process, with the exception of some small amounts of oxygen and carbon. White clouds contain almost no hydrogen, and post-explosion measurements are consistent with this. Very little hydrogen has been found in the spectrum of Type I supernovae.

This is not true for Type II supernovae. Type II supernovae occur when stars with masses greater than eight solar masses run out of nuclear energy and explode on themselves asymmetrically. The exact causes of Type II eruptions are unknown. The emission of neutrinos from the condensed core is known to be a factor because neutrinos contain hundreds of times the energy required for an explosion. However, it is assumed that neutrinos may actually remove a lot of energy from the star. The core is left with very little energy required for combustion. Theories have been proposed that those explosions are responsible for either emitting massive streams of energy known as “jets” or creating sonic shock waves. Computer simulations hope to shed more light on these theories in the future.

Another well-known difference between Type I supernovae and Type II supernovae is in the characteristics of the light spectra emitted during the explosion. Type I supernovae always have a luminosity of about 4 billion times that of our sun at the time of explosion. A steadily decreasing light pattern is obtained. The subsequent decrease in luminosity at this rate constant is due to the radioactive decay of the heavier elements mentioned earlier. Radioactive decay follows the universal law of half-life, with different elements having different half-lives as one of their properties. This can be used to measure the distance to nearby stars by observing Type I supernovae called “standard stars”.

In Type II supernovae, the “luminosity” increases several months after the explosion. This results from the expansion and cooling of the outer boundaries of the resulting gas ball. Computer simulations confirm this with the presence of large amounts of helium and hydrogen in the Type II light spectrum, gases expected to be found after the disintegration of stellar material from this type of explosion.

Type II supernovae are never found in elliptical galaxies. Rather, their stars are usually found in the disks of the spiral arms of galaxies. Therefore, these are considered Population I stars. Population I stars make up about two percent of stars and tend to form from the heavier elements of earlier giant stars. They are young, warm and bright.

Type I supernovae, on the other hand, usually occur in the center of elliptical galaxies. They are believed to be Population II Stars. Population II stars are older, cooler, less luminous and composed of lighter elements.

Although the differences between Type I and Type II supernovae make them seem as different as apples and oranges, they both have their origins in the explosion of massive stars, due to their core collapse and subsequent fusion processes. Therefore, they are in the same class of natural phenomena. Both play critical roles in the evolution of stars and both contain enough unanswered questions to keep astrophysicists wondering for an uncertain future.

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