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Sparkling Wine – How Bubblies of the World Are Created (And Enjoyed)
“In victory, you deserve champagne, in defeat, you need it.” – Napoleon Bonaparte
Champagne was popular not only with such great words, but also with celebrity endorsements or additions. It’s no secret that Agent 007 James Bond has always had a strong affinity for Bollinger Champagne (and vodka). And it is said that Marilyn Monroe once filled her bathtub with 350 bottles of champagne and took a long and luxurious bath in it.
Champagne, the dry sparkling wine from the northeastern region of France (east of Paris) of the same name, has long been considered the ultimate drink of choice to raise a toast or to celebrate a special occasion. Its image as a celebratory drink and Champagne’s high value combined with North Americans’ preference for sweeter-style drinks have fueled image and sales over the years. Fortunately, with the proliferation of affordable, both dry and sparkling wines from almost every wine-producing region in the world, the grape is slowly regaining some of its lost popularity.
Gone are the days when sparkling wine was only consumed to mark a special occasion or to pair with luxury items such as caviar. Sparkling wine makes a great aperitif on its own or with simple appetizers, seafood or sushi, or can be enjoyed with dessert if the wine is dry or sweet. It doesn’t have to be Moët & Chandon Cuvée Dom Pérignon, Bollinger Grande Année or other expensive rosés. Some of the finest wines in the world are now being produced cheaply from New World and other Old World wine regions such as Italy, Spain and Eastern European countries.
And as wineries try to demystify table wines by simplifying labels—above all by identifying grape varieties as opposed to rigid presentation—sparkling wine marketers are also working hard to make a more enjoyable drink for consumers and foodies, which can be enjoyed every day. come on
Not all luxury is champagne
The popularity of champagne has made the name synonymous with sparkling wine, but not all sparkling wine is Champagne. Only sparkling wine produced from specific regions of Champagne, for example, Reims and Épernay, produced by the traditional method using only Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and/or Pinot Meunier, can be described as Champagne. (There are other production pits, however, these are the main ones.) Other sparkling wines from France, but outside of Champagne, produced by the traditional method are called Crémant, while in Spain they are known as Cava.
The traditional method is often called méthode champenoise or traditional methodrequires that the bubbles in each bottle be produced naturally through a second fermentation, known as mousse awardwhich by adding a Liquor, a mixture of sugar and yeast, for still wine. The wine is still referred to as basic wine, or cuvéeand it consists of a mixture of many different wines carefully mixed by cell, or chef de cave. A cuvée can often be a blend of hundreds of different wines. If all the composite wines are from the same vintage, the final sparkling wine is dated. Wineries that prefer to create a consistent style year after year will blend wine from two or more vineyards to create a non-vintage, or multi-vintage, wine.
During bottle fermentation, yeast consumes sugar to convert it into alcohol and carbon dioxide, just as in any alcoholic fermentation; however, the gas is trapped inside the bottle, dissolving in the wine. The pressure inside the bottle can reach 6 bars, about 90 pounds per square inch, or psi – the equivalent of three times the pressure in car tires.
The wine is allowed to age for several weeks and matures very slowly at cool temperatures, between 50° and 54° F (10° and 12° C), with the bottles in a horizontal position, or sour latte. This extended contact with spent yeast cells from fermentation, a process known as yeast autolysis, is what gives sparkling wine its yeasty, nutty aromas and complex flavors. It can take a few weeks to a few years, depending on the desired flavor profile – and the cellarmaster’s patience. After a long stay in the bottle, the dead yeast cells are allowed to fall and in a special crown cap, called biduleby a labor-intensive method known as rigging.
Riddling, or remuageis the process of turning, twisting and turning bottles from a horizontal position to a quasi-vertical position on a pouring rack, or desk, for the spent yeast cells to accumulate in the budule, a process that takes about three weeks. The cellar master may age the sparkling wine by moving the bottles in their vertical position, or sur pointeto the containment container.
Once the wine has reached its ideal and desired flavor profile, the cellarman removes the spent yeast deposits from each bottle through a process known as, or dégorgement. The bottle is held vertically, closed downwards, and with a removable key, the crown cap and bezel are removed when the bottle is turned horizontally. This allows the sediment to fly from the neck of the bottle and keep the wine clear, if done properly. Usually the process is made more effective by cooling the neck of the bottle in a saline solution to freeze the seed.
The last critical step, the metric, which involves adding a small amount of cuvée to which a little sugar is added to balance the wine’s acidity and achieve the desired style, from bone-dry to sweet. The French refer to this solution as cuvée liqueur d’expéditionand usually contains a distilled spirit such as Cognac.
Champagne is a cool grape growing region and, as such, the grapes do not reach high sugar levels and have a higher acidity as in warmer climates, so it needs to be balanced with sugar. The lower sugar level of a base wine typically ranges from 10.0% to 11.0% alc./vol. Bottle fermentation adds another 1.5% to a total of 11.5% to 12.5% alc./vol. for the finished wine.
The last step is putting it in the bottle and tying it with a wire cage (this is what gives the cork its characteristic mushroom shape when removed).
Most sparkling wines are ready to drink after finishing and can last two or three years in the bottle; however, the best roses in the world, i.e. those produced by the traditional method, can live for many more years with a suitable cellar.
This laborious process and the long aging period explain the high value of sparkling wines produced by the traditional method.
Other flowers of the world
The quality of sparkling wine is judged by the combination of aroma and taste and the size of the flowers; The smaller the bubble, the higher its quality. Bottle fermentation, as in the traditional method, produces the smallest bubbles; however, such sparkling wine is laborious and expensive to produce.
The most common and cost-effective alternative to the traditional method is the Charmat or Cuve Close (sealed tank) method, which is used to produce many of the world’s cheapest but good quality beers. Bottles produced with patience and care using this method can rival some of the great champagnes although this method is often used for the quick commercialization of cheap sparklers. The flowers in these are noticeably larger and the aroma and flavor are not as intense, but they provide excellent value. The intensity and complexity of flavor, and quality in general, can be improved by longer aging of the wine on the lees. Asti Spumante, the famous low-alcohol (about 8% alc./vol.) sweet sparkling wine from Piedmont (Italy), Sekt from Germany, and Icewine from Ontario are examples of sparkling wines made using the Charmat method or a variation. are produced.
The Charmat method involves performing secondary fermentation en masse in sealed, sealed stainless steel tanks, bypassing the need for bottle fermentation, racking and separation. The wine is then cooled to stop fermentation, filtered, a dose is added, and then bottled under pressure so as not to lose valuable carbon dioxide gas.
A less common method of making sparkling wine has gained huge popularity in Russia and Ukraine for the mass production of good quality, inexpensive bubbly. A variation of the Charmat process, the Russian or continuous method uses a series (e.g. 5) of pressurized tanks connected in series. The first tank contains cuvée and tirage (sugar and yeast solution). Once fermentation begins, the wine is passed through the second and third tanks, each containing pieces of wood to collect the dead yeast cells (lees) and allow autolysis to occur. The wine is then passed through the fourth and fifth tanks where it becomes clear before being bottled. Although the wine is in contact for a longer time than the Charmat method, the continuous method usually takes less than a month and therefore produces a wine of poor quality.
Another less expensive method is the transfer or racking method, which transfers the bottled wine to a bulk transfer tank under the refrigerator. The dosage is increased and then the wine is bottled under pressure.
The advantage of all the above methods is that they eliminate the labor-intensive steps of pouring and dismantling.
Styles of bubbly
The most popular choices of grape varieties in France for sparkling wine are Chardonnay, Pinot Noir or Pinot Meunier, or a blend of these. Other popular varieties include Chenin Blanc, Muscat and Riesling for whites, and Syrah (Shiraz) for reds, but there are no hard and fast rules. Rosé sparkling wine is usually made from red grapes and is made using a very short maceration period to produce a slightly red color, although a small amount of red wine can be added to white sparkling wine to achieve the desired color, each albeit with a very different flavor profile. .
White white wine made strictly from white grape varieties, such as Chardonnay, such as blanc de blancs whereas sparkling white wine is made from red grape varieties, such as Pinot Noir, as a blanc de noirs.
In addition to color, sparkling wines are often classified by the amount of residual sugar or relative dryness. For example, a Brut sparkling wine can have up to 15 g/L of residual sugar while an Extra Brut usually has less than 6 g/L. Depending on the sugar content, the rest of the country has different designations and requirements; and different countries use different terminologies which can be quite confusing.
Appreciate the bubbly
The sparkling wine production methods outlined above should help you appreciate the difference between a $12 versus $50 or $200 or more bottle price.
Discover the joy of sparkling wine by enjoying it every day of the week, and experimenting with different food pairings until you discover what pleases you the most. So start enjoying yourself now, unlike John Maynard Keynes, one of the most important figures in the entire history of economics, who once said, “My only regret in life is that I didn’t drink more Champagne.”
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